A FUNCTION block statement is used to create a function procedure to return a calculated value to a program.
FUNCTION procedureName[type-suffix] [(parameters)]
‘variable definitions and procedure statements
procedureName = returnValue
- The function type can be any variable type that it will return to the program and is represented by the type suffix.
- Functions hold one return value in the function’s name which is a variable type. Other values can be passed through parameters.
- Functions are often referred to in program calculations, not called like SUB procedures. CALL cannot be used with functions.
- If there are no parameters passed or they are SHARED the parameters and parenthesis are not required.
- Variable names within the procedure do not have to match the names used in the reference parameters, just the value types.
- All $DYNAMIC variable values return to 0 or null strings when the procedure is exited except when a variable or the entire function is STATIC. This can save program memory as all $DYNAMIC memory used in a FUNCTION is released on procedure exit.
- FUNCTION procedure code can use GOSUB and GOTO line numbers or labels inside of the procedure when necessary.
- For early function exits use EXIT FUNCTION before END FUNCTION and GOSUB procedures using RETURN.
- QB64 ignores all procedural DECLARE statements. Define all parameter Data types in the FUNCTION procedure.
- Images are not deallocated when the SUB or FUNCTION they are created in ends. Free them with _FREEIMAGE.
- The IDE can create the FUNCTION and END FUNCTION lines for you. Use the New FUNCTION… option in the Edit Menu. A box will come up for you to enter a name for the FUNCTION. Enter all code between the FUNCTION and END FUNCTION lines.
- Once a FUNCTION was created and used, the QBasic IDE would DECLARE it when the file was saved. QB64 doesn’t need these declarations.
- QBasic’s IDE could place a DEFINT, DEFSNG, DEFLNG, DEFDBL or DEFSTR statement before the FUNCTION line if it is used in the main module. It may even be the wrong variable type needed.
- QBasic allowed programmers to add DATA fields anywhere because the IDE separated the main code from other procedures.
A simple function that returns the current path. Place FUNCTION or SUB procedures after the program END.
PRINT "Current path = "; PATH$ END FUNCTION PATH$ f% = FREEFILE file$ = "D0Spath.inf" 'file name uses a zero to prevent an overwrite of existing file name SHELL _HIDE "CD > " + file$ 'send screen information to a created text file OPEN file$ FOR INPUT AS #f% 'file should exist with one line of text LINE INPUT #f%, PATH$ 'read file path text to function name CLOSE #f% KILL file$ END FUNCTION
Returns a LONG array byte size required for a certain sized graphics screen pixel area GET (graphics statement).
INPUT "Enter a screen mode: ", mode% INPUT "Enter image width: ", wide& INPUT "Enter image depth: ", deep& IntegerArray& = ImageBufferSize&(wide&, deep&, mode%) \ 2 ' returns size of an INTEGER array. PRINT IntegerArray& END DEFINT A-Z FUNCTION ImageBufferSize& (Wide&, Deep&, ScreenMode%) SELECT CASE ScreenMode% CASE 1: BPPlane = 2: Planes = 1 CASE 2, 3, 4, 11: BPPlane = 1: Planes = 1 CASE 7, 8, 9, 12: BPPlane = 1: Planes = 4 CASE 10: BPPlane = 1: Planes = 2 CASE 13: BPPlane = 8: Planes = 1 CASE ELSE: BPPlane = 0 END SELECT ImageBufferSize& = 4 + INT((Wide& * BPPlane + 7) / 8) * (Deep& * Planes) 'return the value to function name. END FUNCTION
Explanation: Function calculates the array byte size required when you GET (graphics statement) an area of a graphics SCREEN. Each mode may require a different sized array. Since graphics uses INTEGER arrays, 2 byte elements, the size returned is divided by 2 in the IntegerArray& calculation function reference. Function returns only 4 for SCREEN 0 which is a text only mode.
- SUB, SCREEN (statement)
- EXIT (statement), END
- _EXIT (function)